Risky Business

Peripheral and Central Venous Catheters Both Pose Risks

  • Lynette Hathaway Patient Safety Authority
  • Mary C. Magee Patient Safety Authority
Keywords: peripheral venous catheter, central venous catheter, patient safety

Abstract

Venous access is an essential method of providing life-saving therapy. As part of intensive efforts to decrease the incidence of central line–associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs), healthcare facilities may be increasing the use of short (noncentral) peripheral venous catheters (PVCs). To investigate this, the Patient Safety Authority (PSA) sought to explore the relationship of actual to predicted complications per central venous catheters (CVCs) and PVCs over a nine-year period. In addition, as PVCs are not without risk and CVCs pose risks aside from infection, we sought to identify the type and relationship of PVC to CVC complications and to quantify the timing and types of PVC and CVC complications and their associated risk factors.

A query of the PSA’s statewide event reporting database, the Pennsylvania Patient Safety Reporting System (PA-PSRS), for venous catheter complication events and a query of the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) database for both primary bloodstream infections (BSIs) and CLABSIs occurring at inpatient facilities from January 1, 2009, through December 31, 2017, yielded 115,937 events. A methodical sampling of PA-PSRS yielded 2,413 PVC and CVC events. These were analyzed for the timing of complications reported, the type of complication reported, and any identified risk factors.

Overall reports of PVC complications increased, and the correlation between actual and predicted PVC events over the nine years studied is strong and statistically significant. The slight decrease in the number of reported CVC complications was not statistically significant. The authors used regression analysis to determine the best-fitting line through the predicted and actual observed events during the period of observation. These data are not intended to present a predictive model of future events. No correlation was found between the numbers of PVC and CVC complications.

The greatest number of PVC complications, particularly infiltration, occurred during catheter maintenance. Excluding NHSN-reported CLABSIs, the greatest number of CVC complications, particularly pneumothorax, occurred during catheter insertion.

Education and training are key to preventing intravascular device–associated complications. Healthcare facilities are encouraged to evaluate policy, procedures, and actual practices to eliminate complications and improve outcomes. In addition, quality improvement efforts aimed at decreasing CLABSIs should include measuring and all PVC complications as a balancing metric.

 

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Image of Peripheral venous and Central venous catheters
Published
2019-09-16
How to Cite
Hathaway, L., & Magee, M. C. (2019). Risky Business. Patient Safety , 1(1), 12. https://doi.org/10.33940/vascular/2019.9.4
Section
Original Research and Articles